The Stop-Signal Task is designed to measure motor response inhibition, one aspect of cognitive control. On each trial of this task participants are instructed to make a speeded response to an imperative "go" stimulus except on a subset of trials when an additional "stop signal" occurs, in which case participants are instructed that they should make no response. The Independent Race Model describes performance in the Stop-Signal Task as a race between a go process that begins when the go stimulus occurs and a stop process that begins when the stop signal occurs. According to this model, whichever independent process reaches completion first determines the resulting behavior; earlier completion of the go process results in an overt response (i.e., stop-failure), whereas earlier completion of the stop process results in successful inhibition. The main dependent measure, stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), can be computed such that lower SSRT indicates greater response inhibition. One variant of the task measures proactive slowing, the tendency for participants to respond more slowly in anticipation of a potential stopping signal. This variant often uses multiple probabilities of a stop signal (e.g., 20% and 40%) to manipulate participants’ expectancies about the likelihood of a stop signal occurring. The extent of slowing in the higher compared to the lower stop probability conditions is an index of proactive slowing/control.
The Stop-Signal Task is the gold-standard model for measuring motor response inhibition, which is thought to be an essential component of self-regulation. Faster response inhibition allows for flexible goal-directed behavior in the ever-changing environment.
[+] PMCID, PUBMED ID, or CITATION
Text Citation: Bissett, P. G., & Logan, G. D. (2011). Balancing cognitive demands: control adjustments in the stop-signal paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37(2), 392-404.
Text Citation: Logan, G. D., & Cowan, W. B. (1984). On the ability to inhibit thought and action: A theory of an act of control. Psychological Review, 91, 295-327.
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The Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program seeks to promote basic research on the initiation, personalization and maintenance of behavior change. By integrating work across disciplines, this effort will lead to an improved understanding of the underlying principles of behavior change. The SOBC program aims to implement a mechanisms-focused, experimental medicine approach to behavior change research and to develop the tools required to implement such an approach. The experimental medicine approach involves: identifying an intervention target, developing measures to permit verification of the target, engaging the target through experimentation or intervention, and testing the degree to which target engagement produces the desired behavior change.
Within the SOBC Measures Repository, researchers have access to measures of mechanistic targets that have been (or are in the processing of being) validated by SOBC Research Network Members and other experts in the field. The SOBC Validation Process includes three important stages of evaluation for each proposed measure: Identification, Measurement, and Influence.
The first stage of validation requires a measure to be Identified within the field; there must be theoretical support for the specific measure of the proposed mechanistic target or potential mechanism of behavior change. This evidence may include references for the proposed measure, or theoretical support for the construct that the proposed measure is intended to assess. The second stage of validation requires demonstration that the level and change in level of the chosen mechanistic target can be Measured with the proposed measure (assay). For example, if the proposed measure is a questionnaire, the score on the measure should indicate the activity of the target process, and it must have strong psychometric properties. The third stage of validation requires demonstration that the measure can be Influenced; there must be evidence that the measured target is malleable and responsive to manipulation. Evidence relating to each stage includes at least one peer-reviewed publication or original data presentation (if no peer-reviewed research is available to support the claim) and is evaluated by SOBC Research Network Members and experts in the field.
Once a measure has gone through these three stages, it will then either be Validated or Not validated according to SOBC Research Network standards. If a measure is Validated, then change in the measured target was reliably associated with Behavior Change. If a measure is Not validated, then change in the measured target was not reliably associated with Behavior Change. Why would we share measures that are not validated? The SOBC Research Network values open, rigorous, and transparent research. Our goal is to make meaningful progress and develop replicable and effective interventions in behavior change science. Therefore, the SOBC sees value in providing other researchers in the field with information regarding measures that work and measures that fall short for specific targets. Further, a measure that is not validated for one target in one population may be validated in another target or population.
Want to learn more? For any questions regarding the SOBC Validation Process or Measures Repository, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Has the mechanism been identified as a potential target for behavior change? This section summarizes theoretical support for the mechanism.
Have the psychometric properties of this measure been assessed? This section includes information such as content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability.
Has a study manipulation led to change in the mechanism? This section addresses evidence that this measure is modifiable by experimental manipulation or clinical intervention.
Has a change in this mechanism been associated with behavior change? This section addresses empirical evidence that causing change in the measure reliably produces subsequent behavior change.