The Single-Category Implicit Association Task: Chocolate (SC-IAT: Chocolate) is a computer task for children which measures implicit associations between the word "chocolate" and the word "stop" versus the word "go.” In other words, this task is designed to tap into attitudes that are outside someone’s conscious awareness, or are outside of their control. The task consists of 3 blocks. Block 1 consists of 16 trials, in which participants sort pictures into the categories "stop" versus "go." Block 2 consists of 48 trials, in which an additional category, "chocolate," is introduced, and it may be paired with "stop" or with "go." Block 3 consists of 48 trials and is identical to Block 2 except that the pairing of chocolate with "stop" or "go" is reversed (note, the last two blocks are counterbalanced so that half of the participants first classify chocolate with “stop”, then with “go,” and the other half of the children first classify chocolate with “go”, then with “stop”). Children are instructed to sort cards with images for “go,” “stop,” or “chocolate” by pressing the the left button when the card matches the word (go or stop) on the left corner of the screen, and the right button when the card matches the word (go or stop) on the right of the screen, as fast as they can. The difference in speed with which children respond to each pairing is calculated as a measure of implicit bias for chocolate. This measure is scored by calculating the difference in mean reaction time between the chocolate-go and chocolate-stop condition, and adding 600ms for each error in response. A higher SC-IAT score indicates a stronger implicit association between chocolate and “go” (i.e., approach bias, or an implicit approach attitude towards chocolate), reflecting greater differences in the speed of response to the pairing of chocolate with “go” compared to the pairing of chocolate with “stop”.
The SC-IAT: Chocolate is an adapted task (see Houben & Jansen, 2015) that captures children’s implicit, or “unconscious,” attitudes towards chocolate (for scoring see Greenwald, Nosek, & Banaji, 2003). Implicit attitudes towards chocolate are associated with self-reported chocolate cravings (Kemps, Tiggeman, Martin, & Elliott, 2013). The importance of implicit attitudes in driving behavior may be especially pronounced when self-regulatory resources are low. For example, participants who have had self-regulatory resources depleted choose to eat candy based on implicit attitudes towards candy, whereas participants who have not had these resources depleted eat candy in line with personal standards for dietary restraint (Hofmann, Rauch, & Gawronski, 2007). This suggests that understanding and modifying implicit attitudes may help people regulate unhealthy behaviors when self-regulatory resources are low.
|Greenwald2003_ScoringIAT_Task-1.pdf HoubenJansen_2015-1.pdf ImplicitFood.Hofmann.2007-1.pdf ImplicitFood.Kempsetal.2013-1.pdf|
We have used the SC-IAT: Chocolate with children 9-12 years of age. Scoring is done using the D600 algorithm from Greenwald et. al (2003) so that higher scores indicate stronger implicit associations between chocolate and ‘go’. We do not have internal consistency or other data to share at this point. We have attached instructions for use of our IAT task in Direct RT (DirectRT can be purchased from Empirisoft (http://www.empirisoft.com/directrt.aspx). Persons interested in using the task can also contact us directly.
The measure has been used in our community sample of low-income children, all 9-11 years of age, about half female, half male.
This measure has not been influenced yet.
This measure has not been validated yet.
|Food IAT Manual||Download File|
The Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program seeks to promote basic research on the initiation, personalization and maintenance of behavior change. By integrating work across disciplines, this effort will lead to an improved understanding of the underlying principles of behavior change. The SOBC program aims to implement a mechanisms-focused, experimental medicine approach to behavior change research and to develop the tools required to implement such an approach. The experimental medicine approach involves: identifying an intervention target, developing measures to permit verification of the target, engaging the target through experimentation or intervention, and testing the degree to which target engagement produces the desired behavior change.
Within the SOBC Measures Repository, researchers have access to measures of mechanistic targets that have been (or are in the processing of being) validated by SOBC Research Network Members and other experts in the field. The SOBC Validation Process includes three important stages of evaluation for each proposed measure: Identification, Measurement, and Influence.
The first stage of validation requires a measure to be Identified within the field; there must be theoretical support for the specific measure of the proposed mechanistic target or potential mechanism of behavior change. This evidence may include references for the proposed measure, or theoretical support for the construct that the proposed measure is intended to assess. The second stage of validation requires demonstration that the level and change in level of the chosen mechanistic target can be Measured with the proposed measure (assay). For example, if the proposed measure is a questionnaire, the score on the measure should indicate the activity of the target process, and it must have strong psychometric properties. The third stage of validation requires demonstration that the measure can be Influenced; there must be evidence that the measured target is malleable and responsive to manipulation. Evidence relating to each stage includes at least one peer-reviewed publication or original data presentation (if no peer-reviewed research is available to support the claim) and is evaluated by SOBC Research Network Members and experts in the field.
Once a measure has gone through these three stages, it will then either be Validated or Not validated according to SOBC Research Network standards. If a measure is Validated, then change in the measured target was reliably associated with Behavior Change. If a measure is Not validated, then change in the measured target was not reliably associated with Behavior Change. Why would we share measures that are not validated? The SOBC Research Network values open, rigorous, and transparent research. Our goal is to make meaningful progress and develop replicable and effective interventions in behavior change science. Therefore, the SOBC sees value in providing other researchers in the field with information regarding measures that work and measures that fall short for specific targets. Further, a measure that is not validated for one target in one population may be validated in another target or population.
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Has the mechanism been identified as a potential target for behavior change? This section summarizes theoretical support for the mechanism.
Have the psychometric properties of this measure been assessed? This section includes information such as content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability.
Has a study manipulation led to change in the mechanism? This section addresses evidence that this measure is modifiable by experimental manipulation or clinical intervention.
Has a change in this mechanism been associated with behavior change? This section addresses empirical evidence that causing change in the measure reliably produces subsequent behavior change.