The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) is a 15-item self-report survey that measures the tendency to be fully aware of one’s experience in the present moment without distraction or forgetfulness. Participants indicate whether they frequently or infrequently experience each item using a 6-point Likert scale: 1 (Almost Always), 2 (Very Frequently), 3 (Somewhat Frequently), 4 (Somewhat Infrequently), 5 (Very Infrequently), and 6 (Almost Never). The scale was developed with the understanding that people likely have better conscious access to information about their tendency to be mindless rather than mindful. As a result, the total score for the MAAS is computed by reverse-scoring and then summing all items. Examples of items include the following: “I find it difficult to stay focused on what’s happening in the present,” “I do jobs or tasks automatically, without being aware of what I’m doing,” and “I snack without being aware that I’m eating.”
The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) is a measure of dispositional mindfulness, which is measured in this case as the infrequency of failing to pay attention in the present moment (Brown & Ryan, 2003). Mindfulness and self-regulation ability have been identified as closely aligned in recent theoretical frameworks (e.g., the self-awareness, -regulation, and -transcendence model of mindfulness; Vago & Silbersweig, 2012). Mindfulness is a potential mechanism of behavior change because it is associated at least in a correlational way with a variety of behaviors such as eating tendencies (Wanden-Berghe, Sanz-Valero, & Wanden-Berghe, 2010), smoking cessation success (Brewer et al., 2011), and problematic gambling (de Lisle, Dowling, & Allen, 2012).
[+] PMCID, PUBMED ID, or CITATION
Text Citation: Brewer, J. A., Mallik, S., Babuscio, T. A., Nich, C., Johnson, H. E., Deleone, C. M., ... & Carroll, K. M. (2011). Mindfulness training for smoking cessation: results from a randomized controlled trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 119(1), 72-80.
Text Citation: Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 822–848.
Text Citation: de Lisle, S. M., Dowling, N. A., & Allen, J. S. (2012). Mindfulness and problem gambling: A review of the literature. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28(4), 719-739.
Text Citation: Vago, D. R., & Silbersweig, D. A. (2012). Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): A framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 1-30.
This measure has not been measured yet.
This measure has not been influenced yet.
This measure has not been validated yet.
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The Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program seeks to promote basic research on the initiation, personalization and maintenance of behavior change. By integrating work across disciplines, this effort will lead to an improved understanding of the underlying principles of behavior change. The SOBC program aims to implement a mechanisms-focused, experimental medicine approach to behavior change research and to develop the tools required to implement such an approach. The experimental medicine approach involves: identifying an intervention target, developing measures to permit verification of the target, engaging the target through experimentation or intervention, and testing the degree to which target engagement produces the desired behavior change.
Within the SOBC Measures Repository, researchers have access to measures of mechanistic targets that have been (or are in the processing of being) validated by SOBC Research Network Members and other experts in the field. The SOBC Validation Process includes three important stages of evaluation for each proposed measure: Identification, Measurement, and Influence.
The first stage of validation requires a measure to be Identified within the field; there must be theoretical support for the specific measure of the proposed mechanistic target or potential mechanism of behavior change. This evidence may include references for the proposed measure, or theoretical support for the construct that the proposed measure is intended to assess. The second stage of validation requires demonstration that the level and change in level of the chosen mechanistic target can be Measured with the proposed measure (assay). For example, if the proposed measure is a questionnaire, the score on the measure should indicate the activity of the target process, and it must have strong psychometric properties. The third stage of validation requires demonstration that the measure can be Influenced; there must be evidence that the measured target is malleable and responsive to manipulation. Evidence relating to each stage includes at least one peer-reviewed publication or original data presentation (if no peer-reviewed research is available to support the claim) and is evaluated by SOBC Research Network Members and experts in the field.
Once a measure has gone through these three stages, it will then either be Validated or Not validated according to SOBC Research Network standards. If a measure is Validated, then change in the measured target was reliably associated with Behavior Change. If a measure is Not validated, then change in the measured target was not reliably associated with Behavior Change. Why would we share measures that are not validated? The SOBC Research Network values open, rigorous, and transparent research. Our goal is to make meaningful progress and develop replicable and effective interventions in behavior change science. Therefore, the SOBC sees value in providing other researchers in the field with information regarding measures that work and measures that fall short for specific targets. Further, a measure that is not validated for one target in one population may be validated in another target or population.
Want to learn more? For any questions regarding the SOBC Validation Process or Measures Repository, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Has the mechanism been identified as a potential target for behavior change? This section summarizes theoretical support for the mechanism.
Have the psychometric properties of this measure been assessed? This section includes information such as content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability.
Has a study manipulation led to change in the mechanism? This section addresses evidence that this measure is modifiable by experimental manipulation or clinical intervention.
Has a change in this mechanism been associated with behavior change? This section addresses empirical evidence that causing change in the measure reliably produces subsequent behavior change.