Sex: 50.1/49.9% M/F Percentage with children: 24.5 Percentage ever divorced: 13.0 Percentage with current gambling problem: 1.5 Percentage with at least one traffic ticket in last year: 8.0 Percentage arrested at least once: 21.5 Percentage arrested more than once: 10.3 Percentage with >$10,000 credit card debt: 7.9 30.65 percent subjects with BMI>30 (obese) 7.28 percent subjects with BMI>40 (extreme obesity)

[+]

Identified

The Grit-S measures perseverance (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009; Duckworth et al., 2007), a key concept when considering self-regulation and pursuit of long-term goals. Grit is conceptually distinct from, but related to, self-control. Self-control is most relevant to more immediate situations (e.g., impulse control), whereas grit refers to commitment to higher-order goals. For example, one might use self-control when eating a salad instead of pizza for dinner, but and exercise grittiness when continuing to pursue a long-term career goal when experiencing setbacks (Duckworth & Gross, 2014). Grit therefore presents a potentially important target for mechanistic research on behavior and behavior change, especially when behaviors must be maintained long-term.

[+] PMCID, PUBMED ID, or CITATION

Text Citation: Duckworth, A., & Gross, J. J. (2014). Self-control and grit: Related but separable determinants of success. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(5), 319-325.

Text Citation: Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of personality and social psychology, 92(6), 1087.

Text Citation: Duckworth, A. L., & Quinn, P. D. (2009). Development and validation of the Short Grit Scale (GRIT–S). Journal of personality assessment, 91(2), 166-174.

Measured

Duckworth and Quinn (2009) systematically developed the Grit-S across a series of 6 studies that established the factor structure, internal reliability, test-retest reliability, and validity of the measure.
Study 1 was intended to select items by testing the validity of the measure against achievement benchmarks and to replicate the two-factor structure of the Grit-O (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007). Participants included both children and adults, and benchmarks included spelling bee performance, Ivy League undergraduate GPA, and attrition from Military Academy. Through this procedure, four items were retained in each subscale, and the shortened scale demonstrated adequate internal reliability across all four samples. The factor structure of the scale was tested using CFA, and demonstrated adequate/good fit across a variety of fit indices.
In Study 2, results using a large online sample again confirmed the two-factor structure and demonstrated adequate internal consistency across subscales (αs > .70). The two-factor structure did not vary across gender. Grit-S was also positively correlated with personality dimensions in the expected direction (e.g., conscientiousness, r = .77) and predicted educational attainment above and beyond personality and age.
Study 3 asked a third party – an informant – to fill the Grit-S out about the index participant to see if the informant reports related to self-report. Indeed, these were moderately correlated, rs > .45.
To examine test-retest reliability on the Grit-S, in Study 4, 279 middle and high school students completed the Grit-S one year apart (r = .68). Validity was also confirmed, as Grit-S scores were related to higher GPA and fewer hours of television.
Further establishing predictive validity, in Study 5, baseline Grit-S scores predicted retention in a military training summer program above and beyond a Whole Candidate Score (a score comprised of information regarding academic success, extracurriculars, and physical capability). In Study 6, Grit-S scores obtained prior to a national spelling bee predicted advancement in the bee above and beyond age and personality variables. Mediational analysis in Study 6 further indicated that practice and experience were significant mediators of this effect.

[+] PMCID, PUBMED ID, or CITATION

Text Citation: Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of personality and social psychology, 92(6), 1087.

Text Citation: Duckworth, A. L., & Quinn, P. D. (2009). Development and validation of the Short Grit Scale (GRIT–S). Journal of personality assessment, 91(2), 166-174.

[+] Demographics

Sex: 50.1/49.9% M/F
Percentage with children: 24.5
Percentage ever divorced: 13.0
Percentage with current gambling problem: 1.5
Percentage with at least one traffic ticket in last year: 8.0
Percentage arrested at least once: 21.5
Percentage arrested more than once: 10.3
Percentage with >$10,000 credit card debt: 7.9
30.65 percent subjects with BMI>30 (obese)
7.28 percent subjects with BMI>40 (extreme obesity)

Influenced

This measure has not been influenced yet.

Validated

This measure has not been validated yet.

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Additional Resources

Grit Scale Survey Visit Link

SOBC Validation Process

The Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program seeks to promote basic research on the initiation, personalization and maintenance of behavior change. By integrating work across disciplines, this effort will lead to an improved understanding of the underlying principles of behavior change. The SOBC program aims to implement a mechanisms-focused, experimental medicine approach to behavior change research and to develop the tools required to implement such an approach. The experimental medicine approach involves: identifying an intervention target, developing measures to permit verification of the target, engaging the target through experimentation or intervention, and testing the degree to which target engagement produces the desired behavior change.

Within the SOBC Measures Repository, researchers have access to measures of mechanistic targets that have been (or are in the processing of being) validated by SOBC Research Network Members and other experts in the field. The SOBC Validation Process includes three important stages of evaluation for each proposed measure: Identification, Measurement, and Influence.

The first stage of validation requires a measure to be Identified within the field; there must be theoretical support for the specific measure of the proposed mechanistic target or potential mechanism of behavior change. This evidence may include references for the proposed measure, or theoretical support for the construct that the proposed measure is intended to assess. The second stage of validation requires demonstration that the level and change in level of the chosen mechanistic target can be Measured with the proposed measure (assay). For example, if the proposed measure is a questionnaire, the score on the measure should indicate the activity of the target process, and it must have strong psychometric properties. The third stage of validation requires demonstration that the measure can be Influenced; there must be evidence that the measured target is malleable and responsive to manipulation. Evidence relating to each stage includes at least one peer-reviewed publication or original data presentation (if no peer-reviewed research is available to support the claim) and is evaluated by SOBC Research Network Members and experts in the field.

Once a measure has gone through these three stages, it will then either be Validated or Not validated according to SOBC Research Network standards. If a measure is Validated, then change in the measured target was reliably associated with Behavior Change. If a measure is Not validated, then change in the measured target was not reliably associated with Behavior Change. Why would we share measures that are not validated? The SOBC Research Network values open, rigorous, and transparent research. Our goal is to make meaningful progress and develop replicable and effective interventions in behavior change science. Therefore, the SOBC sees value in providing other researchers in the field with information regarding measures that work and measures that fall short for specific targets. Further, a measure that is not validated for one target in one population may be validated in another target or population.

Want to learn more? For any questions regarding the SOBC Validation Process or Measures Repository, please email info@scienceofbehaviorchange.org.

Identified

Has the mechanism been identified as a potential target for behavior change? This section summarizes theoretical support for the mechanism.

Measured

Have the psychometric properties of this measure been assessed? This section includes information such as content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability.

Influenced

Has a study manipulation led to change in the mechanism? This section addresses evidence that this measure is modifiable by experimental manipulation or clinical intervention.

Not Validated

Has a change in this mechanism been associated with behavior change? This section addresses empirical evidence that causing change in the measure reliably produces subsequent behavior change.